Definition: A relative is someone who has a relationship with you. Relative pronouns show a relationship between a noun and a clause. The clause provides describing information about the noun. You can also use relative pronouns to combine two sentences into one.
- Some relative pronouns may look like interrogative or demonstrative pronouns, but that doesn’t mean all three types of pronouns do the same job. You’ll learn more about the differences among the three types later in this lesson.
Who, whom, and whose relate to people (or pets if you refer to them by name). Which is used with objects. That is preferably used only with objects, but you will see it used with people. Try to get in the habit of using who with people instead of that. It is more polite.
Examples of Relative Pronouns
I like roller coasters that have lots of loops.
(that = roller coasters)
Ice cream, which is my favorite dessert, tastes very refreshing on a hot summer day.
(which = ice cream)
Teachers who have a sense of humor are easy to get along with.
(who = teachers)
My cousin, who is from Illinois, visits me every year.
(who = my cousin)
The friend whom you saw yesterday wants to go out again tonight.
(whom = friend)
The man whose shirt was stained rushed home for a change of clothes.
(whose = the man’s)
In each of these sentences, you can see that the relative pronoun introduces additional information about the noun.
You can also use relative pronouns to combine two sentences. This feature makes relative pronouns an excellent tool for improving your writing. Take a look at the following two sentences:
The team won the championship. The team went to Disneyland to celebrate.
They sound a little choppy and mechanical, don’t they? You can fix that problem by using the relative pronoun that to replace the noun team in the second sentence. Doing so will allow you to combine both sentences into one.
The team that won the championship went to Disneyland to celebrate.
Now you have a single concise sentence instead of two choppy sentences. Also notice how won the championshipgives us additional information about the team. We wouldn’t know which team went to Disneyland without using a relative pronoun to give us more information. (For more information, look here.)
- Even though relative pronouns can be used to connect clauses, they are not the same as conjunctions. A relative pronoun fulfills two roles: it serves as both a pronoun and a connector. On the other hand, a conjunction’s one and only role is to connect two clauses. Conjunctions can never be pronouns.
As you have probably already noticed, many interrogative, demonstrative, and relative pronouns look exactly the same. In order to tell the difference, you must analyze how these pronouns are being used in a sentence. If they are being used to ask a question, they are interrogative. When you use them to show or point to something, they are demonstrative. You will know if a pronoun is relative if 1) the pronoun introduces describing information about a noun or 2) the pronoun is acting like a conjunction. Below you’ll see some examples to help you understand the differences.
Interrogative:Whom did you ask about the movie times?
(The pronoun whom is being used to ask a question.)
Relative:Dave is the person whom you asked about the movie times.
(The pronoun whomis being use to introduce additional information about Dave.)
Demonstrative:That is the book I found.
(The pronoun that shows which book I found. It may help you to imagine someone pointing to the book.)
Relative:I found the book that you lost. (book I found = book you lost)
(The pronoun that connects the two sentences You lost the book and I found the book. It also gives us some describing information about the book.)
Learn more with Teacher Andrea Verona.
(Aprenda mais com a Professora Andrea Verona)
Today’s lesson is a Hotel role play.
|Q U E S T I O N||A N S W E R|
|What type of accommodation is this?||Luxury hotel accommodation throughout Spain usually in historic buildings. There are some modern hotels in the group that are usually in areas of great beauty or special interest.|
|Are bathrooms en-suite?||Yes|
|Do the Paradores have a Restaurant?||Yes, with the exception of the Parador at Hondarribia where there is a restaurant nearby.|
|Is the accommodation suitable for children?||Children are welcome however, the furniture, furnishings and unprotected drops may make them unsuitable for young children.|
|How do I make a reservation?||Click the link on each Parador page.|
|Who is my reservation with?||We make the reservation in your name with the Parador group using your credit card details to guarantee the reservation. No charge is made on your credit card.|
|What rates will I pay if I use your company?||Exactly the same as the Paradores charge except that one nights accommodation is NOT taken from your card on reservation. We also offer all the promotions and a free booking service with experienced operators available for advice and assistance.|
|What do you charge for cancellations?||Nothing. You only pay the Paradores if you cancel with less than 2 days notice.|
|How do I cancel?||As the reservation is with the Parador group in your name, cancellations must be by you with the Parador concerned. Their telephone number will be on your confirmation email from us. When on the telephone, obtain the name of the person to whom you are speaking and the cancellation number, Record these together with the date and time and keep safely.|
|Is there is a minimum length of stay?||Generally no, however, there are a few exceptions at some Paradores.|
|Are services charged?||Please enquire at each Parador.|
|Are there parking facilities, if so is there a charge?||Depends on the Parador.|
|Can we hold an option whilst we check flight availability?||Yes, usually 24 hours.|
|How is a payment made?||On being presented with a bill. Please remember that no money was taken at the time of reservation and the charge for accommodation, food ordered and services used is payable.|
|What is the method of payment?||Euros or major credit card. Any bank charges are to be paid by the guest. Personal cheques are not accepted.|
|How do I guarantee my reservation?||By emailing your credit card details to our secure server or, by faxing a signed credit card authority.|
|Can extra beds be arranged?||Yes, depending on the room size.|
|Do the Paradores have facilities for the disabled?||Depends on the Parador. Please visit the page with information for the disabled or contact us.|
|What is considered a late arrival?||After 4 pm you must advise the Parador direct.|
|What is the cancellation policy?||The Paradores cancellation policy is: No penalty if canceled up to 48 hours prior to arrival.|
|If I need to cancel my reservation what do I do?||Advise the Parador directly either by phone, fax or email. All contact details are provided in our confirmation email.|
|Who are you?||We are Parapromotions Ltd. the UK registered a limited company and we assist Paradores de Turismo de Espana, S.A. with the promotion of their accommodation in the English speaking market.|
|Do I need a Passport /ID card or Visa?||Please check with your local Embassy or Consulate. Please ensure documents are valid for the dates of travel.|
|Are pets allowed?||No|
|Are flights and car hire included?||No|
|How do I contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel : + 351 258 820 150 Fax : + 351 258 828 852
Today, I would like to teach you a few vocabulary words about computer’s parts and other components.
PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER)
I presume that as you’re visiting this page you are on some kind of computer, but do you know what all the parts of a computer are called? Find the items listed.
Find these items on this computer desk:-
Laptops are similar, but need some extra vocabulary.
Find these items on this laptop
The keyboard is one of your input devices, but do you know your way around an English one?
Find these items on this keyboard
caps lock key(s)
print screen key(s)
Confirming your Flight
If you are taking a plane to travel, then you will be calling a travel agent and purchasing a ticket in your own country. We will not cover this portion because you can do it in your own language. But once you arrive at your English speaking location, you might need to change your flight and talk to English speaking people. More likely, they will have people speaking your language, but just in case, we will cover some general topics about air traveling here.
Confirming your flight
Some airlines require you to call a couple days in advance to confirm your departure date. Here are some sentences you will be asked and what you will need to say.
You: “I would like to confirm my flight.”
Them: “Can I get your ticket number?”
You: “The number is 45-6-43.”
Them: “You are scheduled to depart on June 15th at 1:00 pm. Is this correct?”
You: “Yes it is.”
Them: “Is anybody else traveling with you?”
You: “Yes, my wife.”
Them: “Can I have the other ticket number?”
You: “It is 45-6-44.”
Them: “Your tickets have been confirmed. Please arrive at the airport 3 hours before your flight departs. Thank you for calling.”
Some other questions you might hear are similar to the ones you might hear at the airport counter.
“Would you like to book your seats now?”
“Would you like a window seat or an aisle seat?”
“What is your ticket number?”
“What is your last name?”
“What is your first name?”
Reserving a date to depart or changing a departure date
If you have an open ended ticket or would like to change your departing date, you will have to call and reserve a date to depart.
“I have an open ended ticket and I would like to schedule a departure date.”
“I have a ticket and I need to schedule a departure date.”
“I am scheduled to depart on June 15th. Can I change this to a later date?”
“I have a ticket to depart on June 15th. I would like to see if there is an earlier flight available.”
With any of these questions, the other person will usually ask for your ticket number. After that, they will ask you what date you want to depart.
“What date would you like to depart?”
“What date would you like to change it to?”
“When do you want to depart?”
You should respond by selecting a date.
“I would like to leave on June 22nd.”
“Is June 22nd available?”
“Can you check if June 22nd is possible?”
“I was hoping to reserve a seat for June 22nd.”
After you select a date, they will either say ok, or they will tell you the closest dates available to your selection.
“Yes. We have seats available for the 22nd. Would you like me to reserve them?”
“On the 22nd, the departure time is 1:00 pm. Should I reserve them?”
“We have two flights departing on that date. Would you like to depart at 10 am or 7 pm?”
“I’m sorry, but we do not have any available seats on the 22nd. Should I put you on the waiting list?”
“I’m sorry, there are no departures for the 22nd. We have a flight leaving on the 21st and the 24th. Will either of these days work for you?”
“The 22nd is full. The next available flight is on the 23rd. Would you like me to reserve a seat on that date?”
At the Counter
When you first reach the counter, you should give them your ticket and your passport. The first question they usually ask is how many are traveling with you.
“Is anybody traveling with you today?”
“Is anybody else traveling with you?”
“Are just you two traveling today?”
All airlines have a list of questions they have to ask you. Let’s look at some of these questions.
“Did someone you do not know ask you to take something on the plane with you?”
“Did you have possession of your luggage since you packed?”
“Did you leave your luggage unattended at all in the airport?”
“Are you carrying any weapons or firearms?”
“Are you carrying any flammable material?”
“Do you have any perishable food items?”
If you don’t understand, you can’t say yes or no to all of them. The correct answer for some of them is ‘no’ and some of them is ‘yes’.
“How many luggages are you checking in?”
“Do you have a carry on?”
“Can you place your bag up here?”
“How many carry on bags are you taking with you?”
Afterward, they might ask if you prefer an aisle seat or a window seat.
“Do you prefer window or aisle?”
If they are out of aisle seats, they will ask you if window is ok.
“We do not have any aisle seats remaining. Is a window seat ok with you or would you prefer a middle seat?”
Some people like to be by the emergency exit. You can ask for that seat.
“Do you have a seat next to the emergency exit?”
“Can I have a seat closest to the emergency exit?”
If they do, then you will get a seat by the exit, but if they don’t, they will try to give you one that is close.
“All the seats next to the exit have been taken. I have a seat directly in front of it. Would you like that one?”
Finally, they will tell you the gate number and the boarding time.
“Here are your tickets. The gate number is on the bottom of the ticket. They will start boarding 20 minutes before the departure time. You should report to gate C2 by then. C2 is around the corner and down the hall. Thank you.”
Finding the Gate
They will usually tell you what gate you should go to, but if you need to ask again, I will provide an example question. Also, you might need to ask someone where the gate is located.
“Which gate did you say it was?”
“What was the gate number again?”
“Can you point me towards the gate?”
“How do I get to the gate again?”
“How do I get to gate C2?”
“Where is gate C2?”
At the Airport – Interactive Practice
|Read All | Person A | Person B|
|A: “Welcome. May I have your tickets?”
B: “Here you go.”
A: “Is anybody else traveling with you two?”
B: “No. It’s just us.”
A: “Do you have your passports with you?”
B: “Yes. Here it is.”
A: “I’m going to ask you a series of questions. Please respond with a yes or a no.”
A: “Did someone you do not know ask you to take something on the plane with you?”
A: “Did you have possession of your luggage since you packed?”
A: “Did you leave your luggage unattended at all in the airport?”
A: “Are you carrying any weapons or firearms?”
A: “Are you carrying any flammable material?”
A: “Do you have any perishable food items?”
A: “Great. Can you place your baggage over here?”
A: “Would you like an aisle or a window seat?”
B: “Window seat please.”
A: “Ok. I am placing you two in 21A and 21B. The gate number is C2. It is on the bottom of the ticket. They will start boarding 20 minutes before the departure time. C2 is located around the corner from the hall. Thank you.”
B: “Can you point me to gate C2?”
A: “Sure. It’s that way. Around that corner.”
B: “Great. Thank you.”
A short explanation between WILL and BE GOING TO.
|Will + infinitive||Be going to + infinitive|
|A decision at the moment of speaking:
Julie: There’s no milk.
|A decision before the moment of speaking:
Julie: There’s no milk.
|A prediction based on opinion:
I think the Conservatives will win the next election.
|A prediction based on something we can see (or hear) now:
The Conservatives are going to win the election. They already have most of the votes.
|A future fact:
The sun will rise tomorrow.
|For promises / requests / refusals / offers:
I’ll help you tomorrow, if you like.
- (The phone rings)
Julie: I‘ll get it!
(‘I’m going to get it’ is very strange, because it makes us think that Julie knew the phone was going to ring before it did).
- (The phone rings)
- I‘m going to go on holiday next week.
(‘I’ll go on holiday next week’ makes it sound like you’ve only just decided at that minute. Of course, this is possible, but normally we plan our holidays more in advance!).
Other points about the future:
We use the present continuous tense for definite future arrangements. Often, it doesn’t really matter if we choose ‘be going to’ or the present continuous. In the following example, there is really very little difference in meaning:
- I‘m going to the cinema tonight.
- I‘m going to go to the cinema tonight.
We use the present simple tense in two cases. First, we use it for a timetabled event in the future, like public transport or the start of a class:
- My train leaves at six tonight.
- His class starts at 9am tomorrow.
Second, we use it after certain words, when the sentence has a future meaning. These words are: before / after / as soon as / until / when:
- I’ll call you when I get home.
- She’s going to study after she finishes dinner.
- Please drink some water as soon as you complete the race.